Dura ( D ; Galen, c177 ) : The outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three meninges (Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, c1700 BC); see Dorland's (2003). It was known to Hippocrates in Places in Man and Fleshes (see translation by Potter, 1995, pp. 23, 155, respectively) and named such by Galen (c177; see translation by Wiberg, 1914, p. 21).

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Dura mater ( Ali ibn' ul-Abbas, d994 ) : Synonym for dura (Galen, c177); for naming see translation by Wiberg (1914, p. 86).

Pachymeninges : Synonym for dura (Galen, c177); another form is pachymeninx; see Standring (2008, p. 389).