External : Synonym for outer (Galen, c173). The term was used by Aristotle in De Partibus Animalium; see translation by Ogle (1912, e.g., 685b-25), also see Barclay (1803, p. 116), Standring (2008, p. xxii).

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Outer ( Galen, c173 ) : Away from the center of an object in the body; the opposite of inner; see Standring (2008, p. xxii). The dichotomy was used at least as far back as Galen in the second century; see, for example, translations by May (1968, pp. 711, 377) and Singer (1999, p. 131). Aristotle wrote in De Partibus Animalium of parts within the body and those placed on the outside; see translation of Ogle (1912, 674, 5-6).