Vertebrate brain ( BRv ; Cuvier, 1800 ) : The rostral (Schulze, 1893) topographic division of the cerebrospinal axis (Meckel, 1817; the caudal (Cleland, 1879) division is the spinal cord (Galen, c162-c166). The usual criterion for distinguishing the two divisions in the adult is that the vertebrate brain lies within the skull whereas the spinal cord lies within the spinal (vertebral) column, although this is a difficult problem; see Crosby et al. (1962, pp. 112-120). An ancient Egyptian hieroglyph that refers to the human brain (Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, c1700 BC) probably dates back some five thousand years; see Longrigg (1998, p. 84), Nunn (2002, pp. 43, 50-51, 217), andRocca (2003, p. 21). The brain of vertebrate animals was described by Cuvier (1800, vol. 2, p. 93).