Dorsoventral axis : In animals with bilateral symmetry an axis orthogonal to the rostrocaudal axis that lies in the median plane (Henle, 1855); see Kuhlenbeck (1973, p. 112 and Fig. 34C-ZZ).

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Anteroposterior axis ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : Often used as synonym for rostrocaudal axis in most vertebrates and for the dorsoventral axis in humans; see Standring (2008, Fig. 1). Application of this old and confusing designation is discouraged; see anterior (Aristotle) and anterior (Galen, c177). Also spelled anterior-posterior axis.