Frontal plane ( Henle, 1855 ) : In animals with bilateral symmetry, the plane of section that is parallel to the longitudinal axis (Barclay, 1803) and passes medial (Schulze, 1893)-lateral (Barclay, 1803), orthogonal to the other longitudinal plane, the sagittal plane (Henle, 1855); divides the body into dorsal (Barclay, 1803) and ventral (Schulze, 1893) parts. The term was introduced by Henle (1855, p. 1); also see Kuhlenbeck (1973, p. 114), Brusca & Brusca (1990, Fig. 4-A), Romer (1962, p. 7), Sandring (2008, p. xxii). In quadrupeds it is often confusingly synonymous with transverse plane (Henle, 1855)-see frontal plane (Horsley & Clarke, 1908)-but it has long been argued that positional terms referring to the horizon or other external landmarks, rather than to internal landmarks, be avoided, especially in comparative anatomy; see Wilder & Gage (1882, pp. 21-23).

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Coronal plane ( Barclay, 1803 ) : Synonym for frontal plane (Henle, 1855), named for the human coronal suture, named in turn for the crown of the human head; p. 145. It is commonly used thus in human and other primate anatomy; see Standring (2008, Fig. 1). It is often confusingly used in quadrupeds for transverse plane (Henle, 1855); see coronal plane (Paxinos & Watson, 1982).

Horizontal plane ( Horsley & Clarke, 1908 ) : A synonym for frontal plane (Henle, 1855), commonly used in comparative anatomy. Horsley & Clarke (1908, p. 52) adopted this terminology for use in a stereotaxic instrument and it was adopted for mammals in general, especially in atlases. Also see horizontal plane (Henle, 1855).