Hindbrain ( HB ; Baer, 1837 ) : Rostral (Schulze, 1893) half of the primary hindbrain vesicle (Baer, 1837) of the vertebrate neural tube (Baer, 1837) as it develops into the adult cerebellum (Aristotle), which lies dorsally (Barclay, 1803), combined with the pons (Haller, 1747), which lies ventrally (Schulze, 1893); p. 107, in the original German, "hinterhirn". The term for this topographic division has been used in this sense more recently, for example by His (1895, p. 162), Obersteiner & Hill (1900, p. 46). The term is derived from the fact that since the time of Aristotle and Galen the cerebellum, often combined with the pons, was routinely considered the posterior brain, hindbrain, or small brain, whereas in contrast the cerebrum was often considered the anterior brain, forebrain, or large brain; see Swanson (2000). Synonyms include epencephalon (Sharpey et al., 1867), secondary hindbrain (Sharpey et al., 1867), metencephalon (Huxley, 1871).

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Epencephalon ( Sharpey et al., 1867 ) : Original Latin form of hindbrain (Baer, 1837); p. 577.

Metencephalon ( Huxley, 1871 ) : Synonym for epencephalon (Sharpey et al., 1867) and thus hindbrain (Baer, 1837); p. 60. Wilder (1899, p. 573) regarded the shifting of afterbrain (Baer, 1837) and thus metencephalon (Sharpey et al., 1867) from the last position to the penultimate position, and replacing metencephalon (Sharpey et al., 1867) with myelencephalon (Huxley, 1871)-which had previously referred to the cerebrospinal axis (Meckel, 1817) as a whole: myelencephalon (Owen, 1868)-as "constituting a violation of scientific ethics that merits the severest reprobation"! The situation is perfectly illustrated by comparing Gehuchten (1893, Figs. 32, 33) with Gehuchen (1906, Fig. 14)-before and after His (1895, Fig. 20 and p. 162).

Secondary hindbrain ( Sharpey et al., 1867 ) : Synonym for hindbrain (Baer, 1837); p. 577. Also used by for example Strong & Elwyn (1943, p. 13).