Midbrain ( MB ; Baer, 1837 ) : The middle of the three primary brain vesicles of the vertebrate neural tube (Baer, 1837) that develops into the adult midbrain (Baer, 1837), a topographic division between forebrain (Goette, 1873) and rhombicbrain (His, 1893b). Malpighi (1675; see translation by Adelmann, 1966, p. 1003) identified the cristate vesicle in the chick neural tube, and Baer named it the midbrain vesicle for embryonic vertebrates (1837, p. 106; in the original German, "mittlere Hirnbläachen"). Baer also named the corresponding adult structure the midbrain (1837, p. 107; in the original German, "Mittelhirn"). A synonym is the Latin mesencephalon (Sharpey et al., 1867).

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Mesencephalon ( Sharpey et al., 1867 ) : Latin form of midbrain (Baer, 1837); it was introduced for macrodissected adult humans by Sharpey et al. (1867, p. 577), who also introduced the English, "midbrain".