Alphabetical list

FMC rules and notations
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Vascular cells ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : They form the blood vessels and blood cells within them and are part of the circulatory system; see Peters et al. (1991, Ch. 10). more details

Ventral ( Schulze, 1893 ) : Toward the belly of the body, or away from the back, in the transverse plane (Henle, 1855); the opposite of dorsal (Barclay, 1803). See Schulze (1893, p. 5), and Brusca & Brusca (1990, p. 46). more details

Ventral ganglia ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : The invertebrate central ganglia lying caudal (Cleland, 1879) to the supraesophageal ganglion and ventral (Schulze, 1893) to the digestive system on a central nerve cord trunk; the central ganglia and central nerve cord trunk together form a central nerve cord. See Bullock & Horridge (1965, p. 662). more details

Ventricles ( CEV ; Hippocrates ) : The part of the ventricular-subarachnoid space that lies within the vertebrate central nervous system (Meckel, 1817); they are continuous with the subarachnoid space (Magendie (1827) and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The (cerebral) ventricles were probably known to Anaxagoras of Athens (c488-428 BC; see Mettler, 1947, p. 10; Rasmussen, 1947, p. 1) and were named by Hippocrates in On the Sacred Disease (see translation by Adams, 1972, p. 353). more details

Ventricular system ( VS ; Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : Synonym for ventricles (Hippocrates). more details

Ventricular-subarachnoid space ( VSS ; Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : The continuous cavity associated with the vertebrate central nervous system (Meckel, 1817) that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Part of the cavity is the central lumen of the vertebrate central nervous system (Meckel, 1817) that is the remnant of the embryonic lumen of the neural tube (Baer, 1837); it is referred to as the (cerebral) ventricles (Hippocrates), with walls formed by a monolayer of ependymal cells, a type of glia (Virchow, 1846). The other part is the subarachnoid space (Magendie, 1827) that lies between the outer and inner layers of meninges (Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, c1700 BC), the dura (Galen, c177) and pia (Galen, c192), respectively. The ventricles and subarachnoid space are continuous through holes in the roof of the fourth ventricle (Galen, c177) associated with the medulla (Winslow, 1733). The CSF is equivalent to lymph for the central nervous system and eventually drains into the venous part of the circulatory system; see Crosby et al. (1962, pp. 568-579). more details

Vertebrate brain ( BRv ; Cuvier, 1800 ) : The rostral (Schulze, 1893) topographic division of the cerebrospinal axis (Meckel, 1817; the caudal (Cleland, 1879) division is the spinal cord (Galen, c162-c166). The usual criterion for distinguishing the two divisions in the adult is that the vertebrate brain lies within the skull whereas the spinal cord lies within the spinal (vertebral) column, although this is a difficult problem; see Crosby et al. (1962, pp. 112-120). An ancient Egyptian hieroglyph that refers to the human brain (Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, c1700 BC) probably dates back some five thousand years; see Longrigg (1998, p. 84), Nunn (2002, pp. 43, 50-51, 217), andRocca (2003, p. 21). The brain of vertebrate animals was described by Cuvier (1800, vol. 2, p. 93). more details

Vertebrate central nervous system : See cerebrospinal axis (Meckel, 1817). more details

Vertebrate central nervous system divisions : See topographic divisions of cerebrospinal axis. more details