Alphabetical list

FMC rules and notations
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Tectum ( TC ; Schwalbe, 1881 ) : The dorsal (Barclay, 1803) topographic division of the midbrain (Baer, 1837), essentially dorsal to the cerebral aqueduct (His, 1895) and dominated in mammals by the superior colliculi and inferior colliculi, and contrasting with the ventral (Schulze, 1893) topographic division, the tegmentum (Swanson, 2000). Galen (c177) pointed out the colliculi for macrodissected animals not including humans, referring to them as "little buttocks"; see translation by May (1968, p. 420). Schwalbe (1881, p. 454) apparently introduced the term as currently used, "Decke des Mittelhirns" in the original German; also see Cajal (1899-1904, vol 2, pt 1, p. 449), "el techo" and "la porción tectal" in the original Spanish. Also see Williams & Warwick (1980, p. 940), International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1983, p. A68), Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (1998, A14.1.06.601). Common synonym is corpora quadrigemina (Winslow, 1733). more details

Tegmentum ( Carpenter, 1976 ) : The tegmentum (Schwalbe, 1881) combined with a corresponding part of the caudally adjacent pons (Haller, 1747) between the pontine gray (Reil, 1809) and cerebellum (Aristotle); pp. 322, 384. The term may predate Carpenter. more details

Tegmentum ( Kölliker, 1896 ) : Defined as a synonym for the substantia reticularis grisea [reticular gray matter] of the midbrain (Baer, 1837), pons (Haller, 1747), and medulla (Winslow, 1733); pp. 209-223. Also see Anthoney (1994, pp. 528-532). more details

Tegmentum ( Meckel, 1817 ) : The tegmentum (Swanson, 2000) without the cerebral peduncle (Tarin, 1753) white matter tract; see English translation (1832, vol. 2, p. 467), "Haube" in the original German. The Latin "tegmentum" (see Burdach, 1822, p. 101, who used the same definition) means "cap" or "covering" in English, and Meckel described it as such for the cerebral peduncle (Tarin, 1753). Hence the synonym for cerebral peduncle (Tarin, 1753), basis pedunculi (Meckel 1817; see English translation, 1832, vol. 2, p. 467); also see Ranson (1920, p. 158). Unfortunately, basis pedunculi later acquired a second meaning, the cerebral peduncle (Tarin, 1753) together with the substantia nigra (Soemmerring, 1791); see Henle (1871, p. 244), Strong & Elwyn (1943, p. 228), Crosby et al. (1962, pp. 221, 260). more details

Tegmentum ( Schwalbe 1881 ) : The tegmentum (Swanson, 2000) without the cerebral peduncle (Tarin, 1753) and substantia nigra (Soemmerring, 1791; p. 450 ff). Later used thus by for example Obersteiner & Hill (1900, p. 69), Crosby et al. (1962, pp. 221, 260, 262), Carpenter (1976, p. 384), Williams & Warwick (1980, p. 935 ff.). more details

Tegmentum ( TG ; Swanson, 2000 ) : The ventral (Schulze, 1893) topographic division of the midbrain (Baer, 1837); the dorsal (Barclay, 1803) topographic division is the tectum (Schwalbe, 1881). Meckel (1817; see English translation, 1832, vol. 2, p. 467) apparently introduced the term and roughly its definition here for macrodissected adult humans, except he excluded the cerebral peduncle (Tarin, 1753), a white matter tract at the base of the midbrain, which is still common today but is included here. As defined here, tegmentum refers to the whole of the midbrain (Baer, 1837) excluding the tectum (Schwalbe, 1881) but including the pretectal region (Scalia, 1972); see Swanson (2000, pp. 522, 526). Usage of this term is very complex, inconsistent, and illogical; see for example Crosby et al. (1962, pp. 221, 260, 262), Carpenter (1976, p. 367 ff.). more details

Telencephalic nuclei ( Crosby et al., 1962 ) : Synonym for basal ganglia of telencephalon (Ranson, 1920) in macrodissected adult humans, and is thus not synonymous with cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000); p. 356. more details

Telencephalon ( His, 1893b ) : Based on comparative embryology including human, it included the endbrain (Kuhlenbeck, 1927) and the preoptic, anterior, and tuberal regions (see Swanson 1987, p. 2) of the hypothalamus (Kuhlenbeck, 1927); pp. 173, 178, 179; also see His (1895, p. 158). more details

Telencephalon ( Kuhlenbeck, 1927 ) : Original Latin form of vertebrate endbrain (Kuhlenbeck, 1927); chs. 3, 10. more details

Telencephalon impar ( Kuhlenbeck, 1929 ) : Synonym for telencephalon medium (Herrick, 1910); p. 24, also see Crosby et al. (1962, p. 343). more details

Telencephalon medium ( Herrick, 1910 ) : The unevaginated part of the telencephalon (His, 1893b) surrounding the rostral (Schulze, 1893) end of the third ventricle (Galen, c173), and basically comprising the preoptic region (Swanson, 1976b) of the hypothalamus (Kuhlenbeck, 1927); see Strong & Elwyn (1943, p. 19), Crosby et al. (1962, p. 343). In English, the median telencephalon; see Strong & Elwyn (1943, p. 274)-as contrasted with the evaginated cerebral hemispheres (Tiedemann, 1826). It was clearly defined by Herrick (1910, pp. 493-495) and presaged by Johnston (1909, p. 513). more details

Telodendria ( Rauber, 1897 ) : Originally the end branches of an axon (Kölliker, 1896)-the terminal arborization (Cajal, 1888)-or of a dendrite (His, 1889), with each individual branch a teledendron (singular); Rauber (1897, p. 74), see Barker (1899, p. 82), Böhm et al. (1926, p. 150). Now it usually refers just to the end branches of an axon; see Jones & Cowan (1983, p. 306, note). more details

Term : See standard term, reference term, synonym, partial correspondence. more details

Terminal ( Cajal, 1899 ) : A general term that refers to an axon terminal (Barker, 1899) and/or synapse-of-passage; its characteristic feature is a slight rounded swelling that is presynaptic; Cajal used for Golgi material, p. 67. more details

Terminal arborization ( Cajal, 1888 ) : Abundant branching at the end of an axon trunk or axon collateral (Cajal, 1899), typically with abundant axon terminals (Barker, 1899) and axon varicosities; used by Cajal (1888, p. 10) for Golgi material of bird cerebellum (Aristotle); also see Strong & Elwyn (1925, p. 173). Synonym is telodendria in its modern sense. more details

Terminal autonomic nerves ( TAN ; Swanson & Bota, 2000 ) : A topographic division of autonomic nerves (Langley, 1898) that macroscopically appear to arise mostly from terminal ganglia (Gaskell, 1886) and/or terminal plexuses; nicely illustrated for macrodissected adult humans by Ranson (1920, Fig. 250). more details

Terminal bouton ( Auerbach, 1898 ) : Synonym for axon terminal (Barker, 1899); named by Auerbach (1898); see Peters et al. (1991, pp. 150, 187, 358). more details

Terminal en passant : Synonym for terminal-of-passage. more details

Terminal ganglia ( GT ; Gaskell, 1886 ) : A topographic division of autonomic ganglia (Langley, 1900) lying on or in the walls of innervated viscera; named thus by Gaskell (1886, p. 3) for vertebrates based on structure-function criteria. more details

Terminal plexuses ( TPL ; Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : A topographic division of autonomic nerves (Langley, 1898) that form more or less discrete anastomoses of small white matter tracts (bundles) in or near the walls of innervated viscera. They are characterized by parasympathetic ganglion cells that only sometimes condense into macroscopically obvious terminal ganglia (Gaskell, 1886). The distinction between terminal plexuses and prevertebral plexuses is clearly illustrated by Ranson (1920, Fig. 250) and Williams & Warwick (1980, Fig. 7-224, and pp. 1122-1137). more details

Terminal-of-passage ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : A terminal (Cajal, 1899) on a very short stalk that protrudes from an axon trunk or axon collateral (Cajal, 1899) along its course rather than at the terminal arborization (Cajal, 1888) of the trunk or collateral. With the light microscope they resemble dendritic spines. See Fox & Barnard (1957, Fig. 9), Gerfen & Sawchenko (1984, pp. 231, 235, Fig. 10-F). more details

Termination ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : The neuron (Waldeyer, 1891), neuron type (Bota & Swanson, 2007), or gray matter region where a connection or output ends; see Herrick (1915, p. 108). more details

Thalamus ( Galen, c173 ) : In at least one instance this term clearly referred to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle (Vesalius, 1543); see translation by May (1968, p. 687). more details

Thalamus ( TH ; His, 1893a ) : The dorsal (Barclay, 1803) topographic division of the interbrain (Baer, 1837); the ventral (Schulze, 1893) topographic division is the hypothalamus (Kuhlenbeck, 1927). The macrodissected adult human thalamus was clearly illustrated by Vesalius (1543; see translation by Singer, 1952, Figs. 4-8) and the term as defined here was introduced by His (1893a, pp. 161-162). It includes the traditional epithalamus, dorsal thalamus, and ventral thalamus of Herrick (1910, pp. 494, 498); also see Kuhlenbeck (1927, Ch. 9) and Jones (1985, p. 87). more details

Thalamus ( Malpighi, 1673 ) : Basically a synonym for interbrain (Baer, 1837), used in his description of chick development, and short for "thalami nervorum opticorum"; see translation of Adelmann (1966, p. 967). more details

Third ventricle ( V3 ; Galen, c173 ) : The part of the ventricles (Hippocrates) in the median plane (Henle, 1855) of the interbrain (Baer, 1837), continuous rostrally (Schulze, 1893) with the lateral ventricles (Vesalius, 1543) and caudally (Cleland, 1879) with the cerebral aqueduct (His, 1895). Galen (c173; see translations by May, 1968, p. 141 and Singer, 1999, p. 234) discovered and named the third ventricle in the macrodissected adult ox. more details

Topographic arrangement of gray matter regions ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : A hierarchical arrangement of gray matter regions based strictly on a particular scheme of topographic divisions, including topographic divisions of cerebrospinal axis.Swanson (1992, Table A) provided a systematic example for the 10 elementary topographic divisions of cerebrospinal axis of the adult rat. more details

Topographic description of body ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : One of two common orthogonal ways of describing completely the body; the other is the systems description of body. Topography here deals with the accurate geometric delineation and description of locations in the body; see Oxford English Dictionary (1989). For mammals the major locations are head, neck, trunk, and extremities. A hierarchical set of topographic locations together describes completely the body from a structural perspective; see Brash (1951, p. 3), Hollinshead (1974, pp. v-vii), Williams (1995, pp. 2, 15). more details

Topographic division ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : A macrostructural part of the nervous system (Monro, 1783) created at least conceptually by cutting (dividing) with a knife between defined structural landmarks and fitting into a recognized macrostructural hierarchy; see Swanson (2000). The central nervous system (Meckel, 1817) and peripheral nervous system (Meckel, 1817) are the two major topographic divisions, except in animals with just a nerve net, which has divisionless topography. more details

Topographic divisions of cerebrospinal axis ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : Since Classical Antiquity at least six fundamentally different ways to divide the cerebrospinal axis (Meckel, 1817) have been used, although today there is rather broad consensus about a set of major topographic divisions. The set of divisions is arranged in a hierarchical parceling scheme that is based primarily on structural differentiation of the neural tube (Baer, 1837) and its end product in adult macrostructure or gross anatomy (Swanson, 2000). There are 10 elementary divisions at the bottom: cerebral cortex (Bauhin, 1605), cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000), thalamus (His, 1893a), hypothalamus (Kuhlenbeck, 1927), tectum (Schwalbe, 1891), tegmentum (Swanson, 2000), cerebellum (Aristotle), pons (Haller, 1747), medulla (Winslow, 1733), and spinal cord (Galen, c162-c166). There is considerably more controversy about smaller topographic divisions below the level of the ten elementary divisions. The 17 terms in the hierarchy below cerebrospinal axis (Meckel, 1817) are very useful "building blocks" that may be combined in many ways to create new terms, like brainstem, which can have different meanings depending on which elementary divisions are included (Swanson, 2000, Tab. 1). more details

Topographic macroarchitecture of nervous system ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : One of two common orthogonal ways to describe completely the nervous system (Monro, 1783). Topography here deals with the accurate macroscopic (gross anatomical) delineation and description of major locations in the nervous system, in contrast to the subsystems description of nervous system that deals with the microscopic-histological organization of gray matter regions and white matter tracts-and the connections they form. A topographic location in the nervous system, like the midbrain (Baer, 1837), is usually a heterogeneous mixture of components, including parts of the circulatory system, meninges (Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, c1700 BC), ventricles-subarachnoid space, gray matter regions, and white matter tracts. more details

Tract : Shortened form of white matter tract. more details

Transverse axis ( Henle, 1855 ) : The axis orthogonal to the longitudinal axis (Barclay, 1803) or rostrocaudal axis of the body in all animals with a nervous system (Monro, 1783); term introduced by Henle (1855, p. 1). In animals with radial symmetry it is the only axis orthogonal to the longitudinal axis (Barclay, 1803); in animals with bilateral symmetry it is divided into a dorsoventral axis and an orthogonal mediolateral axis with right and left halves; see Kuhlenbeck (1973, p. 112). more details

Transverse plane ( Henle, 1855 ) : The plane of section orthogonal to the longitudinal axis (Barclay, 1803), dividing the body into rostral (Schulze, 1893) and caudal (Cleland, 1879) parts. Term introduced by Henle (1855, p. 1), also see Kuhlenbeck (1973, p. 114). more details

Transverse tract ( Swanson & Bota, 2010 ) : A white matter tract coursing essentially along the transverse axis (Henle, 1855) of the nervous system (Monro, 1783); if a transverse tract crosses the median plane (Henle, 1855) in an animal with bilateral symmetry, the segment related to that plane is a commissure. The basically transverse and longitudinal organization of nervous system tracts was emphasized early on by Spencer (1881) and Cajal (1899-1904, vol. 1, p. 12), and more recently in the orthogon theory of Reisinger (1925, 1972). more details