Alphabetical list

FMC rules and notations
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Effector ( Sherrington, 1906 ) : A non-neuronal cell (Hooke, 1665) receiving input from a neuron (Waldeyer, 1891) and producing a response like contraction or secretion; pp. 6-7, 309. more details

Efferent : Generally, a connection or pathway from a node. 1. The terms afferent and efferent were first used by Unzer (1771; see English translation, 1851, pp. 69, 254) to indicate toward or away from, respectively, the central nervous system (Meckel, 1817) or, conversely, away from or toward the non-neuronal tissues of the body; see Sherrington (1900, p. 784), Clarke & O'Malley (1996, p. 342). These neutral terms avoid functional implications that may or may not be valid; for example, afferent information may not be sensory if it does not reach the level of consciousness. 2. A connection or projection from a gray matter region, neuron type (Bota & Swanson, 2007), neuron (Waldeyer, 1891), or site. The preferred synonym is output. more details

Electrical synapse : A synapse (Foster & Sherrington, 1897) based strictly on the flow of ions, rather than neurotransmitters; see Peters et al. (1991, pp. 203-207), Bennett (2000). more details

Electrotonic synapse : Synonym for electrical synapse; see Peters et al. (1991, pp. 203-210). more details

Encephalon ( Homer, c9th century BC ) : Synonym for vertebrate brain (Cuvier, 1800). Homer (c9th century BC) used this Greek term in referring to the marrow within the skull or head; see Longrigg (1998, p. 168) and Rocca (2003, pp. xvii, 21). more details

End bulb ( Held, 1897 ) : Synonym for axon terminal (Barker, 1899); named by Held (1897). more details

Endbrain ( EB ; Kuhlenbeck, 1927 ) : The rostral (Schulze, 1893) and dorsal (Barclay, 1803) topographic division of the forebrain (Goette, 1873); the caudal (Cleland, 1879) and ventral (Schulze, 1893) division is the interbrain (Baer, 1837). This basic division of the macrodissected adult human brain (Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, c1700 BC) has been recognized at least since Mondino (1316), see translation by Singer (1925, vol. 1, p. 92), and was named thus by Kuhlenbeck (1927, chs. 3, 10). This English form of telencephalon (Kuhlenbeck, 1927) has been used routinely, for example by Herrick (1915, p. 121), Clark (1951, p. 854), Williams & Warwick (1980, p. 982), and Nauta & Fiertag (1986, p. 39). Synonyms include secondary forebrain (Sharpey et al., 1867), telencephalon (Kuhlenbeck, 1927), cerebrum (Obersteiner & Hill, 1900), cerebral hemispheres (Tiedemann, 1826). more details

Epencephalon ( Mihalkovics, 1877 ) : Synonym for afterbrain (Baer, 1837), that is, the medulla (Winslow, 1833); p. 25. more details

Epencephalon ( Owen, 1868 ) : Synonym for macrodissected adult vertebrate rhombicbrain (His, 1893b); p. 79. more details

Epencephalon ( Sharpey et al., 1867 ) : Original Latin form of hindbrain (Baer, 1837); p. 577. more details

Ephapse : Although sometimes used to mean electrical synapse, it has many connotations and should be avoided without careful definition; see Bennett (2000, p. 17). more details

External : Synonym for outer (Galen, c173). The term was used by Aristotle in De Partibus Animalium; see translation by Ogle (1912, e.g., 685b-25), also see Barclay (1803, p. 116), Standring (2008, p. xxii). more details

Extrinsic connection : Often a synonym for interregional connection, though its meaning can be vague and its use is thus discouraged. more details

Extrinsic pathway : Often a synonym for interregional pathway, though its meaning can be vague and its use is thus discouraged. more details