Alphabetical list

FMC rules and notations
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Basal ganglia ( Carpenter, 1976 ) : For macrodissected adult humans it includes the caudate and lenticular nuclei and the amygdala, and is thus not synonymous with cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000); p. 496. more details

Basal ganglia ( Ferrier, 1876 ) : In modern terms includes for macrodissected adult monkeys and humans the cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000) and interbrain (Baer, 1837) considered together; pp. 8, 236. more details

Basal ganglia ( Strong & Elwyn, 1943 ) : Synonym for basal ganglia of telencephalon (Ranson, 1920) in macrodissected adult humans, and thus not synonymous with cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000); p. 319. more details

Basal ganglia ( Warwick & Williams, 1973 ) : Synonym for cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000); see Warwick & Williams (1973, p. 805; and Williams & Warwick, 1980, p. 864). Its use is discouraged because reference to ganglia (Galen, c173) in the cerebrospinal axis (Meckel, 1817) is archaic; and because "basal ganglia" today usually refers to a functional system that includes components in the forebrain (Goette, 1873) and midbrain (Baer, 1837), rather than to a topographic division of the endbrain (Kuhlenbeck, 1927); see Anthoney (1994, pp. 106-109), DeLong & Wichmann (2007), and Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (1998, *A14.1.09.501). more details

Basal ganglia of telencephalon ( Ranson, 1920 ) : For macrodissected adult humans it includes the caudate and lentiform (putamen and globus pallidus) nuclei, amygdala, and claustrum (p. 252) and is thus not synonymous with cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000). More recently it was used in Ranson's sense by for example Clark (1951, p. 968). more details

Basal nuclei ( Clark, 1951 ) : Synonym for basal ganglia (Strong & Elwyn, 1943) in macrodissected adult humans, and thus not synonymous with cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000); p. 968. Others employing this usage include Warwick & Williams (1973, p. 976; and Williams & Warwick, 1980, p. 1032), International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1983, p. A72). more details

Basal nuclei ( Warwick & Williams, 1973 ) : Synonym for cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000); see Warwick & Williams (1973, p. 805; and Williams & Warwick, 1980, p. 864) and Swanson (1998, p. 200). more details

Basic plan : A high level model of nervous system (Monro, 1783) structure-function organization that only contains minimal, essential, or cannonical features; see Jacobson (1991, pp. 6-17), Swanson (2003, 2007). Bauplan (see Kuhlenbeck, 1967, pp. 159-165; Brusca & Brusca, 1990, p. 43) and general plan (see Bullock & Horridge, 1965, p. 11) are synonyms. "General plan of the body" was used as long ago as Aristotle, for example in De Partibus Animalium; see translation by Ogle (1912, 684b-15). more details

Between brain : Synonym for interbrain (Baer, 1837). Used by for example Obersteiner & Hill (1900, p. 72), Herrick (1915, p. 121), Williams & Warwick (1980, p. 864), and Nauta & Feirtag (1986, p. 39). ‘Tween-brain is also used; see Nauta & Feirtag (1986, p. 38), Nieuwenhuys et al. (2008, p. 9). more details

Bifurcation ( Cajal, 1889 ) : Short form of axon bifurcation; called thus by Cajal (1889, Fig. 3 and p. 91, "bifurcación" in Spanish). more details

Bifurcation branch ( Cajal, 1889 ) : Short form of axon bifurcation branch; called thus by Cajal (1889, pp. 91, 95). more details

Bilateral ( Aristotle ) : On the both sides of the body in an animal with bilateral symmetry. The term was used thus by Aristotle in Historia Animalium; see translation by Thompson (1910, e.g., 493a-15), also see Standring (2008, p. xxii). more details

Bilateral symmetry : Symmetry where only one plane, the median plane (Henle, 1855), divides the body into roughly mirror image right and left halves, at least when viewed from the exterior. Aristotle in De Partibus Animalium laid the foundation for describing animal symmetry and positional information; see translation by Ogle (1912, e.g., 667b), "the body of every sanguineous animal that is capable of locomotion is bilateral; for in such animals there is a distinguishable before and behind, a right and left, an above and below". In Historia Animalium he clarified the problems with positional information in comparative anatomy, "In man, above all other animals, the terms ‘upper' and ‘lower' are used in harmony with their natural positions; for in him, upper and lower have the same meaning as when they are applied to the universe as a whole. In like manner the terms, ‘in front', ‘behind', ‘right' and ‘left', are used in accordance with their natural sense. But in regard to other animals, in some cases these distinctions do not exist, and in others they do, but in a vague way. For instance, the head with all animals is up and above in respect to their bodies; but man alone, as has been said, has, in maturity, this part uppermost in respect to the material universe"; see translation by Thompson (1910, 294a-25). Also see Willmer (1990, p. 15), Brusca & Brusca (1990, p. 46). more details

Body ( Aristotle ) : The physical or material frame or structure of humans or any other animal; the whole material organism viewed as an organic entity. Aristotle used the term in this sense; see translation by Thompson (1910, Book 1), also see Oxford English Dictionary (1989, definition 1). All bodies have an age in the life cycle and a sex (female, male, mixed). In taxonomy, only the physical characteristics common to a taxon (like species) are considered, not the variable physical characteristics of individuals; see Simpson (1961, p. 18). more details

Body system : A set of interconnected or interdependent parts that forms a complex unity with a specific function; see Dorland's (2003), Oxford English Dictionary (1989). A set of body systems together describes completely the structure-function organization of the body-a systems description of body; see Brash (1951, p. 4), Williams (1995, pp. 2, 15). more details

Bouton : Short form of terminal bouton (Auerbach, 1898). more details

Bouton-of-passage : A synapse (Foster & Sherrington, 1897) formed by an axon varicosity (Cajal, 1888); "bouton en passant" in French; see Peters et al. (1991, pp. 150, 187, 358). more details

Brain ( BR ; Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, c1700 BC ) : See invertebrate brain (>1840) and vertebrate brain (Cuvier, 1800). An ancient Egyptian hieroglyph that refers to the human brain probably dates back some five thousand years; see Longrigg (1998, p. 84), Nunn (2002, pp. 43, 50-51, 217), and Rocca (2003, p. 21). more details

Brain ( Varolio, 1573 ) : In modern terms Varolio's definition of the human brain (cerebrum in Latin) excluded the cerebellum (Aristotle), as well as the midbrain (Baer, 1837), pons (Haller, 1747), and medulla (Winslow, 1733), the latter three of which he included in spinal marrow (Varolio, 1573); Fig. 2(1-3) on f. 19r. more details

Brain ( Vesalius, 1543 ) : In modern terms Vesalius's definition of the human brain excluded the medulla (Winslow, 1733) and pons (Haller, 1747), which he included with the spinal marrow (Vesalius, 1543); see translation by Richardson & Carman (2002, pp. 176-177, 205). more details

Brainstem ( Burdach, 1822 ) : Basically a combination of the brainstem (Schwalbe, 1881) and the cerebral nuclei (Swanson, 2000), or basal ganglia (Warwick & Williams, 1973), as originally defined for macrodissected adult humans; p. 11. It corresponds to the oblong marrow (Willis, 1664), and has been used more recently in Burdach's sense by for example Herrick (1915, p. 114), Ranson & Clarke (1959, Fig. 32). more details

Brainstem ( Jacobsohn, 1909 ) : A combination of the medulla (Winslow, 1733), pons (Haller, 1747), and midbrain (Baer, 1837) as originally defined for adult humans; p. 1. Used in this sense more recently by for example Olszewski & Baxter (1954, p. 7), Williams (1995, p. 910), Nieuwenhuys et al. (2008, p. 3). more details

Brainstem ( Schwalbe, 1881 ) : A topographic division of the vertebrate brain (Cuvier, 1800) that is a combination of the medulla (Winslow, 1733), pons (Haller, 1747), midbrain (Baer, 1837), and interbrain (Baer, 1837), and thus excludes the endbrain (Kuhlenbeck, 1927) or cerebrum (Obersteiner & Hill, 1900), and the cerebellum (Aristotle). Used in this sense by Schwalbe (1881, p. 396), and more recently by for example Mettler, 1948, Fig. 119), Carpenter (1976, pp. 36-37), Nauta & Feirtag (1986, Fig. 69), Brodal (1992, p. 285), Swanson (2003, p. 243). more details

Bulb : Synonym for medulla (Winslow, 1733); introduced for macrodissected adult humans by Chaussier (1807, p. 120). more details